Reading List: Electrotherapy

Reading List: Electrotherapy

Tim Watson -Fracture healing Reading List


Anon (1983). “Ultrasonic assessment of stress fractures.” BMJ 286: 1479.

Baker, K. G., et al. (2001). “A review of therapeutic ultrasound: biophysical effects.” Phys Ther 81(7): 1351-8.

Byl, N. N., et al. (1996). “Effects of ultrasound on the orientation of fibroblasts: an in-vitro study.” Eur-J-Phys-Med-Rehabil 6(6): 180-4.

Casarotto, R. A., et al. (2004). “Coupling agents in therapeutic ultrasound: acoustic and thermal behavior.”Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 85(1): 162-5.

Ciccone, C. D., et al. (1991). “Effects of ultrasound and trolamine salicylate phonophoresis on delayed-onset muscle soreness.” Phys Ther 71(9): 666-75; discussion 675-8.

Culav, E. M., et al. (1999). “Connective tissues : Matrix composition and its relevance to physical therapy.”Physical Therapy 79(3): 308-319.

Dinno, M., et al. (1989). “The significance of membrane changes in the safe and effective use of therapeutic and diagnostic ultrasound.” Phys Med Biol 34: 1543-1552.

Docker, M. F., et al. (1982). “Ultrasound couplants for physiotherapy.” Physiotherapy 68(4): 124-125.

Draper, D. and e. al (1995). “Rate of temperature increase in human muscle during 1Mhz and 3Mhz continuous ultrasound.” J Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 22(4): 142-150.

Draper, D., et al. (1993). “A comparison of temperature rise in human calf muscle following applications of underwater and topical gel ultrasound.” JOSPT 17: 247-251.

Draper, D. O. and M. D. Ricard (1995). “Rate of temperature decay in human muscle following 3 MHz ultrasound: the stretching window revealed.” Journal of Athletic Training 30(4): 304-7.

Draper, D. O., et al. (1995). “Temperature changes in deep muscles of humans during ice and ultrasound therapies: an in vivo study.” Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 21(3): 153-7.

Dunn, F. and L. A. Frizzell (1982). Bioeffects of ultrasound. Therapeutic Heat and Cold. F. Lehmann J, Rehabilitation Medicine Library386-.

Dyson, M. and J. Niinikoski (1982). “Stimulation of tissue repair by therapeutic ultrasound.” Infections in Surgery: 37-44.

Dyson, M. and D. Smalley (1983). Effects of ultrasound on wound contraction. Ultrasound Interactions in Biology & Medicine. R. Millner, E. Rosenfeld and U. Cobet. New York, Plenum Press151-158.

Dyson, M. and J. Suckling (1978). “Stimulation of tissue repair by ultrasound: A survey of the mechanisms involved.” Physiotherapy 64(4): 105-108.

El Hag, M., et al. (1985). “The anti-inflammatory effect of dexamethazone and therapeutic ultrasound in oral surgery.” Br J Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery 23: 17-23.

El-Batouty, M. F., et al. (1986). “Comparative evaluation of the effects of ultrasonic and ultraviolet irradiation on tissue regeneration.” Scand J Rheumatology 15: 381-386.

Enwemeka, C. S. (1989). “The effects of therapeutic ultrasound on tendon healing. A biomechanical study.”Am J Phys Med Rehabil 68(6): 283-7.

Enwemeka, C. S., et al. (1990). “The biomechanical effects of low-intensity ultrasound on healing tendons.”Ultrasound Med Biol 16(8): 801-7.

Frizzell, L. A. and F. Dunn (1982). Biophysics of ultrasound. Therapeutic Heat and Cold. J. Lehmann. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins.

Fyfe, M. C. and L. A. Chahl (1982). “Mast cell degranulation: A possible mechanism of action of therapeutic ultrasound (Abstract).” Ultrasound in Med & Biol 8(Suppl 1): 62.

Gomez, M. A., et al. (1989). “Medical collateral ligament healing subsequent to different treatment regimens.” J. Appl. Physiol. 66(1): 245-252.

Harvey, W., et al. (1975). “The stimulation of protein synthesis in human fibroblasts by therapeutic ultrasound.” Rheumatol Rehabil 14(4): 237.

Hashish, I., et al. (1986). “Anti-inflammatory effects of ultrasound therapy: evidence for a major placebo effect.” Br J Rheumatol 25(1): 77-81.

Hill, M., et al. (2003). “Muscle satellite (stem) cell actiation during local tissue injury and repair.” J Anat203: 89-99.

Hoogland, R. (1995). Ultrasound Therapy. Delft, Enraf Nonius.

Huys, S., et al. (1993). “Comparison of effects of early and late ultrasound treatment on tendon healing in the chicken limb.” J Hand Ther 6: 58-59.

Johns, L. D., et al. (2007). “Analysis of effective radiating area, power, intensity, and field characteristics of ultrasound transducers.” Arch Phys Med Rehabil 88(1): 124-9.

Kitchen, S. and C. Partridge (1997). “Ultrasound, shortwave diathermy and laser: a survey to examine patterns of use in England.” Br J Therapy Rehabil 4(2): 75-78.

Kitchen, S. S. and C. J. Partridge (1990). “A review of therapeutic ultrasound:
Part 1 – Background and physiological effects
Part 2 – The efficacy of ultrasound
Part 3 – References.” Physiotherapy 76(10): 593-600.

Klucinec, B., et al. (2000). “Effectiveness of wound care products in the transmission of acoustic energy.”Phys Ther 80(5): 469-76.

Latey, P. (2001). “Aspects of inflammation.” J Bodywork and Movement Therapies 5(2): 124-131.

Lehmann, J. (1982). Therapeutic Heat and Cold. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins.

Lehmann, J. F. and B. J. de Lateur (1989). Ultrasound, shortwave, microwave, superficial heat & cold in the treatment of pain. Textbook of Pain. P. D. Wall and R. Melzack. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone932-941.

Leonard, J., et al. (2004). “A comparison of intramuscular temperatures during 10-minute 1.0-MHz ultrasound treatments at different intensities.” J. Sport Rehabil. 13(3): 244-254.

Leung, M. C., et al. (2004). “Effect of ultrasound on acute inflammation of transected medial collateral ligaments.” Arch-Phys-Med-Rehabil. 85(6): 963-6.

Leung, M. C., et al. (2006). “Therapeutic ultrasound enhances medial collateral ligament repair in rats.”Ultrasound Med Biol 32(3): 449-52.

Lorena, D., et al. (2002). “Nornal scarring : importance of myofibroblasts.” Wound Repair Regen 10(2): 86-92.

Markert, C. D. (2004). “Ultrasound and exercise in skeletal muscle regeneration.”

Maxwell, L. (1992). “Therapeutic ultrasound: Its effects on the cellular & mollecular mechanisms of inflammation and repair.” Physiotherapy 78(6): 421-426.

McBrier, N. M., et al. (2007). “Therapeutic ultrasound decreases mechano-growth factor messenger ribonucleic acid expression after muscle contusion injury.” Arch Phys Med Rehabil 88(7): 936-40.

McDiarmid, T., et al. (1985). “Ultrasound and the treatment of pressure sores.” Physiotherapy 71(2): 66-70.

Meakins, A. and T. Watson (2006). “Longwave ultrasound and conductive heating increase functional ankle mobility in asymptomatic subjects.” Physical Therapy in Sport 7: 74-80.

Mortimer, A. J. and M. Dyson (1988). “The effect of therapeutic ultrasound on calcium uptake in fibroblasts.” Ultrasound in Med & Biol 14(6): 499-506.

Neidlinger-Wilke, C., et al. (2002). “Fibroblast orientation to stretch begins within three hours.” J Orthop Res 20(5): 953-6.

Nussbaum, E. (1998). “The influence of ultrasound on healing tissues.” Journal of Hand Therapy 11(2): 140-7.

Nussbaum, E. L. (1997). “Ultrasound: to heat or not to heat – that is the question.” Physical Therapy Reviews 2: 59-72.

Nussbaum, E. L. and M. Locke (2007). “Heat shock protein expression in rat skeletal muscle after repeated applications of pulsed and continuous ultrasound.” Arch Phys Med Rehabil 88(6): 785-90.

Poltawski, L. and T. Watson (2007). “Relative transmissivity of ultrasound coupling agents commonly used by therapists in the UK.” Ultrasound Med Biol 33(1): 120-8.

Pye, S. (1996). “Ultrasound therapy equipment – does it perform?” Physiotherapy 82(1): 39-44.

Ramirez, A., et al. (1997). “The effect of ultrasound on collagen synthesis and fibroblast proliferation in vitro.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 29(3): 326-32.

Reher, P., et al. (1999). “Effect of ultrasound on the production of IL-8, basic FGF and VEGF.” Cytokine11(6): 416-23.

Robertson, V. J., et al. (2006). Electrotherapy Explained: Principles and Practice. Oxford, Elsevier.

Schabrun, S., et al. (2006). “Are therapeutic ultrasound units a potential vector for nosocomial infection?”Physiother Res Int 11(2): 61-71.

Srbely, J. Z. and J. P. Dickey (2007). “Randomized controlled study of the antinociceptive effect of ultrasound on trigger point sensitivity: novel applications in myofascial therapy?” Clin Rehabil 21(5): 411-7.

Straub, S. J., et al. (2008). “Variability in effective radiating area at 1 MHz affects ultrasound treatment intensity.” Phys Ther 88(1): 50-7; discussion 58-62.

ter Haar, G. (1987). Recent advances in therapeutic ultrasound. Ultrasound: Method Applications, Biological Effects and Hazzard Potential. M. Repacholi, M. Grandolfo and A. Rindi. New York, Plenum Press.

ter Haar, G. (1999). “Therapeutic Ultrsound.” Eur J Ultrasound 9: 3-9.

Toumi, H. and H. M. Best (2003). “The inflammatory response: friend or enemy for muscle injury?” Br J Sports Med 37: 284-286.

Tsai, W. C., et al. (2006). “Ultrasound stimulation of types I and III collagen expression of tendon cell and upregulation of transforming growth factor beta.” J Orthop Res 24(6): 1310-6.

Turner, S., et al. (1989). “The effect of ultrasound on the healing of repaired cockrel tendon: is collagen cross-linkage a factor?” J Hand Surg 14B: 428-433.

Wang, E. D. (1998). “Tendon repair.” J Hand Ther 11(2): 105-10.

Ward, A. R. (1986). Electricity, Fields and Waves in Therapy. Marrickville, Australia, Science Press.

Warden, S. J., et al. (2006). “Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Accelerates and a Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Delays Knee Ligament Healing.” Am J Sports Med 34(7): 1094-102.

Watson, T. (2000). “Masterclass. The role of electrotherapy in contemporary physiotherapy practice.”Manual Therapy 5(3): 132-41.

Watson, T. (2002). “Ultrasound Dose Calculations.” In Touch 101: 14-17.

Watson, T. (2003). “Soft Tissue Healing.” In Touch 104: 2-9.

Watson, T. (2006). “Electrotherapy and tissue repair.” Sportex-Medicine. 29: 7-13.

Watson, T. (2006). “Tissue repair: The current state of the art.” Sportex-Medicine. 28: 8-12.
Watson, T. (2008). “Ultrasound in contemporary physiotherapy practice.” Ultrasonics 48: 321-329

Watson, T. and S. Young (2008). Therapeutic Ultrasound. Electrotherapy : Evidence Based Practice. T. Watson. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone – Elsevier.

Werner, S. and R. Grose (2003). “Regulation of wound healing by growth factors and cytokines.” Physiol. Rev 83: 835-870.

Wilkin, L. D., et al. (2004). “Influence of therapeutic ultrasound on skeletal muscle regeneration following blunt contusion.” Int. J. Sports Med. 25(1): 73-77.

Williams, R. (1987). “Production and transmission of ultrasound.” Physiotherapy 73(3): 113-116.

Yeung, C. K., et al. (2006). “Pulsed ultrasound treatment accelerates the repair of Achilles tendon rupture in rats.” J Orthop Res 24(2): 193-201.

Young, S. R. and M. Dyson (1990). “The effect of therapeutic ultrasound on angiogenesis.” Ultrasound Med Biol 16(3): 261-9.

Young, S. R. and M. Dyson (1990). “Macrophage responsiveness to therapeutic ultrasound.” Ultrasound Med Biol 16(8): 809-16.

Zhou, S., et al. (2004). “Molecular mechanisms of low intensity pulsed ultrasound in human skin fibroblasts.” J Biol Chem 279(52): 54463-9.

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